• Issue

    The Journal of Wildlife Management: Volume 85, Issue 1

    C1, 1-187
    January 2021

ISSUE INFORMATION

Free Access

Issue Information - Cover

  • Pages: C1
  • First Published: 08 December 2020
Free Access

Issue Information - Editorial Board and TOC

  • Pages: 1-3
  • First Published: 08 December 2020

EDITOR'S MESSAGE

Free Access

Thanks for the Guardians of Science

  • Pages: 5-6
  • First Published: 17 November 2020

REVIEW

Featured Article

Preparing Wildlife for Climate Change: How Far Have We Come?

  • Pages: 7-16
  • First Published: 03 November 2020

Although peer-reviewed recommendations to inform climate adaptation are rapidly increasing, protected area management remains the prominent focus in the scientific literature. Researchers need to address the deficit of local-scale, population-based recommendations for climate adaptation for terrestrial wildlife.

RESEARCH ARTICLES

Management and Conservation

An Investigation of Factors Influencing Bear Spray Performance

  • Pages: 17-26
  • First Published: 01 October 2020

In this study of factors that influence bear spray performance, namely temperature, wind, previous canister use, and canister age, we found that all influenced performance. None of these concerns, however, justified abandoning this highly effective bear deterrent option.

Simulating Strategic Implementation of the CRP to Increase Greater Prairie-Chicken Abundance

  • Pages: 27-40
  • First Published: 04 October 2020

We evaluated the potential effects of strategic versus opportunistic addition to an agricultural landscape of Conservation Reserve Program grasslands and wetlands in northwestern Minnesota, USA, on measures of abundance of greater prairie-chickens. We suggest that strategic addition of large parcels of grassland and wetland in proximity to existing habitat has the greatest potential to benefit greater prairie-chickens.

Addressing Temporal Variability in Bird Calling with Design and Estimation: A Northern Bobwhite Example

  • Pages: 41-49
  • First Published: 01 November 2020

We compared the bias and precision of northern bobwhite population estimation among distance-sampling models and predetermined, well-informed values for detection and availability (i.e., estimates from another system) using simulations. We demonstrated that fitting models to point counts conducted 3 times/year at a feasible number of sampling points (35) can produce relatively unbiased estimates of bobwhite density, and that although pre-determined detection functions can be fortuitously unbiased for certain years, they are not a reliable method for identifying trends in density over time.

Predation Management and Spatial Structure Moderate Extirpation Risk and Harvest of Northern Bobwhite

  • Pages: 50-62
  • First Published: 22 October 2020

We developed a simulation model for northern bobwhite that included spatial structure, density dependence, and harvest effects and used it to investigate the long-term population effects of meso-mammal trap and removal, a management practice that increases fecundity. Meso-mammal trap and removal consistently produced greater harvest opportunity over time, increased population abundance, and reduced extirpation risk, suggesting that predation management should be considered by managers not only as a tool to increase harvest, but a way to maximize long-term population persistence.

Population Ecology

A Pragmatic Approach for Determining Otter Distribution from Disparate Occurrence Records

  • Pages: 63-72
  • First Published: 30 October 2020

Opportunistic data can be successfully integrated into species distribution models following ad hoc corrections to control for sampling bias. We demonstrate that such data can be successfully used to model otter occurrence across central and western New York, USA.

Estimating Coyote Densities with Local, Discrete Bayesian Capture-Recapture Models

  • Pages: 73-86
  • First Published: 30 October 2020

Even in areas of relatively low coyote density, our method of fecal DNA sampling provides a reliable method for monitoring coyote abundance and density and the use of a local evaluation approach further increases the use by saving time during analysis.

Estimating Abundance of an Unmarked, Low-Density Species using Cameras

  • Pages: 87-96
  • First Published: 03 September 2020

Recently developed methods for estimating abundance from remote cameras without marked individuals performed comparably to existing, intensive methods on 2 populations of cougars in Idaho, USA, 2017–2019. With camera-based methods for estimating abundance without marked individuals that work for species that live at low densities, large-scale, multi-species monitoring could be more feasible.

Factors Influencing Survival Rates of Pronghorn Fawns in Idaho

  • Pages: 97-108
  • First Published: 17 September 2020

Our findings indicate diet quality for female pronghorn during pregnancy was positively related to fawn survival. Management actions that enhance forage quality or restores habitat for higher quality forage should be considered if herd levels are below management objectives, particularly if fawn recruitment is low in that area.

Contrasting Effects of Climate Change on Alpine Chamois

  • Pages: 109-120
  • First Published: 19 October 2020

Assessing the potentially opposing effects of climate change during spring, summer, and winter on population recruitment in Alpine chamois, we revealed a decrease in survival of kids during their first winter during the study period. Therefore, it is important to set appropriate upper limits on yearling harvest in management plans or, in extreme case, to exclude them completely, sensitive to their decreasing survival.

Weather Influences Multiple Components of Greater Prairie-Chicken Reproduction

  • Pages: 121-134
  • First Published: 23 September 2020

Female greater prairie-chickens experience reduced reproductive output due to extreme weather conditions in the Southern Great Plains, USA. In particular, daily nest survival declined in years with above average rainfall during the nesting season and on days that experienced extreme rainfall events. Further, warmer spring temperatures resulted in earlier nest initiation dates, smaller clutch sizes, and reduced daily nest survival.

Implications from Monitoring Gopher Tortoises at Two Spatial Scales

  • Pages: 135-144
  • First Published: 22 October 2020

We studied gopher tortoise population demographics over 25 years and compared estimates of density and abundance using 2 separate methods. Resulting conservation implications were highly variable; landscape density estimates revealed a nonviable population density, whereas local population estimates revealed dense viable gopher tortoise populations.

Habitat Relations

Sex-Specific Elk Resource Selection during the Anthrax Risk Period

  • Pages: 145-155
  • First Published: 01 October 2020

Female and male elk are under different resource selection pressures during the anthrax risk period, which resulted in different potential anthrax exposure areas. The areas highly selected by male and female elk overlapping with anthrax areas should be prioritized for carcass detection and anthrax surveillance efforts.

Female Moose Prioritize Forage Over Mortality Risk in Harvested Landscapes

  • Pages: 156-168
  • First Published: 19 October 2020

Female moose are selecting intensively logged areas and their populations are declining within them. Equally intensive landscape management through restoration and deactivations of aspects of salvage logging (i.e., roads) and landscape scale restoration is necessary to stem these declines.

Comparison of Woodland Caribou Calving Areas Determined by Movement Patterns Across Northern Ontario

  • Pages: 169-182
  • First Published: 04 October 2020

Parturition and neonatal mortality rates can be predicted accurately from movement rates. Caribou selected calving (neonatal and post-neonatal) areas to minimize predation risk, but greater use of lowlands and increased movement rates postpartum increased risk of neonatal mortality.