• Issue
    Volume 84, Issue 3
    C1, 395-607
    April 2020


Issue Information - Cover

  • Pages: C1
  • First Published: 13 March 2020

Issue Information - Editorial Board and TOC

  • Pages: 395-398
  • First Published: 13 March 2020



Featured Article

Open Access

Caribou Use of Habitat Near Energy Development in Arctic Alaska

  • Pages: 401-412
  • First Published: 18 December 2019

Despite the long-term presence of energy development within the summer range of the Central Arctic Caribou Herd, we found that female caribou reduced their use of habitat near infrastructure during all the time periods we examined, although the effects waned across the summer. Given our findings, minimizing the influence of energy development on caribou behavior may be accomplished by reducing the overall footprint of development within key seasonal habitat areas and movement corridors.

Management and Conservation

Bark Beetle-Affected Forests Provide Elk Only a Marginal Refuge from Hunters

  • Pages: 413-424
  • First Published: 08 January 2020

Elk increased use of beetle-kill during hunting seasons as did hunters during the archery season; however, during the rifle season, hunters avoided beetle-kill. Nevertheless, during the rifle season, areas of beetle-kill with a high probability of elk occurrence dampened the aversion hunters had towards beetle-kill.

Managing the Effects of Introduced Predators on Hawaiian Endangered Seabirds

  • Pages: 425-435
  • First Published: 29 January 2020

This study highlights the effects of introduced feral cats, black rats, pigs, and barn owls on endangered seabirds on Kauaʻi, Hawaii, USA. Predator control or complete predator removal or exclusion is vital to ensuring the long-term persistence of montane breeding colonies.

Open Access

The Influence of Water Depth on Energy Availability for Ducks

  • Pages: 436-447
  • First Published: 05 January 2020

Food availability for nonbreeding ducks in northeastern Colorado is less than what is needed to support population goals. Water depth limits dabbling ducks' access to food and I provide estimates of the percent of various reservoir and wetland sites that contain suitable depths to facilitate feeding by dabbling ducks.

Hunting and Nesting Phenology Influence Gobbling of Wild Turkeys

  • Pages: 448-457
  • First Published: 11 December 2019

Our findings suggest that hunting and removal of male wild turkeys had a negative effect on daily gobbling activity, and this effect was disproportionately greater than the positive effect of female reproductive behaviors. We found that hunting and removal of males were important determinants of gobbling activity, and offer that corresponding reductions in gobbling activity may have mediating effects on the mating system of wild turkeys.

Hunting Activity Effects on Roost Selection by Male Wild Turkeys

  • Pages: 458-467
  • First Published: 01 January 2020

Our findings suggest that hunting activity had little influence on roost site fidelity, as male wild turkeys exhibited low fidelity to nightly roosts before and after the onset of hunting. However, after hunting began males exhibited greater plasticity in roost selection, suggesting they may have altered selection to mitigate risk from hunting while maintaining the strategy of moving about their ranges and roosting at different sites on consecutive nights.

Determining When Bobolink Finish Breeding to Time Agricultural Activity in Nesting Refuges

  • Pages: 468-477
  • First Published: 24 January 2020

Transect surveys and point counts can be used to accurately assess when bobolink finish breeding in agricultural grasslands in July in Ontario, Canada. Field surveys can ensure breeding is finished before agricultural activity occurs and enable agricultural activity earlier when breeding is finished before mid-July in fields targeted for bobolink conservation.

Reptiles Under the Conservation Umbrella of the Greater Sage-Grouse

  • Pages: 478-491
  • First Published: 24 January 2020

At least 14 reptile species could benefit from conservation of intact sagebrush land covers but additional research on each species' response to habitat restoration actions is needed to assess broader claims of multi-taxa benefits when it comes to manipulative sage-grouse habitat management.

Population Ecology

Combining Harvest and Genetics to Estimate Reproduction in Wolves

  • Pages: 492-504
  • First Published: 09 January 2020

Genetic reconstruction of sibling groups from harvest samples is an efficient, reliable way to estimate a minimum count of reproductive packs of wolves using an opportunistic source of samples. Application of this method to other systems will be affected by background population knowledge, marker number, allelic richness, and heterozygosity of the markers used.

Factors Affecting Glucocorticoid and Thyroid Hormone Production of Island Foxes

  • Pages: 505-514
  • First Published: 16 December 2019

Fecal glucocorticoid and triiodothyronine concentrations measured in this study will assist management of island foxes by serving as reference data for future monitoring. Comparing hormone concentrations and patterns documented here to those measured during future surveys will allow managers to identify factors that negatively affect island fox health by increasing stress or reducing nutritional status.

Open Access

Genetic Characteristics of Restored Elk Populations in Kentucky

  • Pages: 515-523
  • First Published: 05 January 2020

We assessed genetic diversity in restored herds of elk in Kentucky, USA, and compared genetic similarity to western source stocks. Genetic variation in the restored populations was comparable to source stocks and genetic differentiation and Bayesian clustering revealed that stocks from Utah and North Dakota, USA, contributed most to the restored populations.

Use of Museum Specimens to Refine Historical Pronghorn Subspecies Boundaries

  • Pages: 524-533
  • First Published: 01 January 2020

Extinct pronghorn populations in northern Baja California, Mexico, share ancestry with the contemporary Peninsular subspecies, justifying the release of captive bred endangered Peninsular pronghorn at sites in this area. Ancestry of extinct populations in southern California, USA, is less certain; therefore, ecological data and conservation goals should be prioritized in determining which subspecies to release into this area.

A Meta-Analysis of Band Reporting Probabilities for North American Waterfowl

  • Pages: 534-541
  • First Published: 15 December 2019

We provide a meta-analysis of 337 estimates of band reporting probabilities for North American waterfowl. We provide guidance for analysis of historical banding data using a continuous time series of estimated band reporting probability from 1948 to 2010.

Nest Site Selection Influences Cinnamon Teal Nest Survival in Colorado

  • Pages: 542-552
  • First Published: 06 January 2020

Cinnamon teal in Colorado selected nest sites with a high proportion of grass and a low proportion of forbs relative what was available. These habitat characteristics were also associated with higher nest survival.

Sources of Mortality in Bald Eagles in Michigan, 1986–2017

  • Pages: 553-561
  • First Published: 20 January 2020

Our analysis of necropsy data on bald eagles collected in Michigan determined the greatest sources of mortality to be trauma due to vehicular collisions and lead poisoning. As bald eagle populations continue to recover in Michigan, results from our study can be used by managers to determine area-specific opportunities to secure avoidance, minimization, and compensatory mitigation measures to reduce and offset detrimental effects to eagles.

Estimating Survival for Elusive Juvenile Pond-Breeding Salamanders

  • Pages: 562-575
  • First Published: 02 January 2020

We empirically estimated recapture and survival probabilities for elusive juveniles of 3 complex life cycle salamander species using capture-mark-recapture protocols and inference from published salamander vital rates. Estimates of survival were comparable across species and estimation methods, lending support to the use of rigorously estimated vital rate data from ecologically and phylogenetically similar species as place-holder information in demographic models used to predict population responses to management scenarios for species of conservation concern for which data are sparse.

Habitat Relations

Summer Habitat Use of Female Mule Deer in Oregon

  • Pages: 576-587
  • First Published: 11 December 2019

Our analysis of habitat use by mule deer on summer range indicated mule deer used areas with intermediate canopy cover, on low slopes, and closer to forest edges, streams, and dirt roads. Forest management prescriptions that maintain canopy cover around 40% and create forest edge may benefit mule deer in south-central Oregon and other forested ecosystems, particularly if these prescriptions are implemented on areas with gentle slopes and access to streams.

Is Habitat Constraining Bighorn Sheep Restoration? A Case Study

  • Pages: 588-600
  • First Published: 03 February 2020

We constructed seasonal habitat models for female bighorn sheep within the Madison Range, southwest Montana, USA, and generated minimum population estimates within the extrapolation area. Our extrapolations of predicted habitat suggest the potential for a broader distribution and a higher abundance of bighorn sheep throughout the Madison Range. Our results provide managers with a useful tool to guide and monitor restoration efforts within the Madison Range, but also serve as a case study evaluating the restoration potential within mountain ranges containing established, but non-expanding populations of bighorn sheep.